Instructions to Authors

[ Submitting a Manuscript | Legal Requirements | Review, Revision & Proofing Processes | Manuscript Preparation Details | Additional Resources| Final Submission Checklist ]

Human Technology: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Human in ICT Environments subscribes to the values and practices of Open Access publishing. Therefore, no fees are charged to authors for submission to, processing by, or publication in Human Technology. In addition, authors retain copyright to their published papers.

1. Submitting Manuscripts

Human Technology accepts, on an ongoing basis, manuscripts meeting the aim and the scope of the journal. (See the Mission Statement for more information.)

Manuscripts (written in good English, following a modified version of the American Psychological Association style [APA style] as outlined in Manuscript Preparation Details) should be submitted by way of Human Technology's journal management system in either Word (.doc or .docx) or rich text format (.rtf) format. No paper versions are needed. All submitted manuscripts will be evaluated by an online anti-plagiarism program before assessment by the editor in chief in regard to the suitability of the paper's topic for the scope of our journal and the paper's readiness for peer review. (For papers submitted to thematic issues, these areas are assessed by the guest editors.) Manuscripts taken into publication consideration will be subject to a double-blind peer review process. Papers accepted for publication are subjected to copy editing.

By submitting a manuscript to Human Technology, the author (and the corresponding author on behalf of his/her co-authors) guarantees that the paper is original and not under consideration currently for publication elsewhere (including in any online forums). In addition, a corresponding author affirms that co-authors, if any, have approved of the manuscript and have agreed to submit it to Human Technology. Finally, the authors must guarantee that the responsible authorities at the institution where the work has been carried out are aware of and (explicitly) approve of the potential publishing of the manuscript associated with their organization. In order to submit a paper for publication consideration in Human Technology, you will be asked during the submission process to confirm that the paper is original and that any manuscript based on institutional, organizational, or company research has received the appropriate permissions from the organization regarding publication of results.

If figures or texts passages included in the manuscript have been published previously, the authors are required to obtain (and submit to Human Technology) reprint permission from the original author and/or all copyright holders prior to the publishing of such material. Any materials received without such copyright permissions will be assumed to be the original work of the author, and author bears full responsibility for any copyright infringement.

Authors retain the copyright to their articles (see the Terms and Conditions of Use and Copyright information); Human Technology retains copyright to the online published version. Prior to the publication, the author (or corresponding author on behalf of his/her coauthors) must sign an Author's Warranty and Publication Agreement [download]. In addition, authors acknowledge that no compensation for the manuscript will be given.

3. Review, revisions, and proofing process

Human Technology has a specified process for the review and revision of articles in preparation for publication. For information on the typical editorial process, see the editorial policy and review process description.

Prior to publication, corresponding authors will receive a PDF version of their manuscript for final proofing. Proofreading of this final manuscript is the responsibility of the corresponding author and must be completed within 72 hours or the time specified by Human Technology's managing editor. At this point, the author is entitled to formal corrections of the manuscript only. Substantial or substantive changes in content (new results, corrected values, changes in title and/or authorship) are not permitted without the approval of the editor in chief. No changes can be made after the paper has been published.

Authors must sign the "Author's Warranty and Publication Agreement" prior to the manuscript's publication in Human Technology. A scanned version (in PDF) of the Warranty with the corresponding author's signature that is uploaded to Human Technology's publishing management system provides legal confirmation that the manuscript as provided in the most current version of the paper can be published by Human Technology.

4. Manuscript Preparation Details

(For a PDF version of both the preparation details and the checklist, click here.)

Articles submitted to Human Technology for consideration may be written in any recognized publication style. However, if the article is accepted into the publication process, all revised versions must be written within Human Technology's editorial style guidelines for citations, references, and English language, which is a modified version of the style presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (referred to here as the APA Manual; 6th ed. is preferred but 5th ed. is acceptable). Most elements of Human Technology's editorial style that differ from APA style are provided below. See also the Final Submission Checklist.

Please follow these instructions carefully. Final manuscripts that do not fit the specifications provided may be returned for reformatting or revision.

Papers should be organized (see details on each item below) as follows:

  1. Title of the article, the running title, authorship, and affiliation
  2. Abstract and keywords/phrases
  3. The main body text, including in-text citations (with endnotes, if necessary)
  4. Reference List
  5. Author's Note (if appropriate) and Correspondence contact information
  6. Appendixes, if needed
  7. Tables, figures and illustrations, numbered and in the order of mention in the article, with accompanying title/caption information.

1. Title and authorship

Begin the paper with the title of the manuscript (informative but succinct) in all capitalized letters (although upper- and lower-case letters should be used when submitting the manuscript via HTPublishing). Include a running headline for your article (maximum 50 characters, including punctuation and spaces), drawn from the title of your paper, which will run at the top of the internal pages. Follow the title with the full name(s) of the author(s) in the order of how they should appear on the published version and the affiliation (department and institution/organization and country) of each author.

2. Abstract and keywords

Each manuscript must include an abstract, 120-150 words in length, that presents the significant issues and findings of the paper. Define any abbreviations included in the abstract. Following the abstract, supply 4 to 6 keywords/phrases that characterize the scope of the paper and can be used for indexing purposes.

3. Body of Text

The style of an article involves several distinct areas, each of which is important to present clearly and accurately. Please implement Human Technology's editorial style guidelines specifically.

Editorial style

For editorial style issues not specifically addressed in this document or the APA Manual, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th—or later—edition). Questions regarding spelling, abbreviations, and foreign phrases should be referred to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.

Each paragraph must include at least two sentences. Please organize the material so that paragraphs clearly lead the reader through the article's key points, without unnecessary repetition or loss of continuity.

Technical style

Human Technology publishes its articles in a one column format. Please prepare manuscripts likewise, with the following margins:

Top margin: 3.8 cm for A4 paper (1.5 inches for USA letter size)
Side margins: 2.54 cm (1 inch)
Bottom margin: 3.7 cm (.75 inch)

There is no minimum or maximum length designated for papers published in Human Technology, although quality research manuscripts typically fill at least 15 pages in single-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font (including references). However, the entire document, including all illustrations and tables, should be no larger than 3MB. Zip files of the final manuscript are accepted.

Structure the margins to be fully justified (straight margins left and right). Do not specifically auto-format elements of the paper (particularly endnotes, citations, and references), and do not add manually inserted return spaces except after headings and ends of the paragraph. Use the software program's automatic page numbering for the manuscript, with the page number centered in the footer.

When structuring your article, use three or fewer layers of headings (in addition to the title). Do not create the heading structure through a formatting process in the software; please do it manually. Do not add numbers to your headings. The headings should be organized as follows:

ARTICLE TITLE (centered, bold, 15-point Arial font, all capitalized)

LEVEL 1 HEADING (centered, bold, 12-point Arial, all capitalized)

Level 2 Heading (uppercase major words [i.e., no prepositions that are fewer than four letters in length], bold, 12-point Arial, flush left)

Level 3 Heading (uppercase major words [i.e., no prepositions that are fewer than four letters in length], indented 1 cm/.4 in., 12-point Arial)

Do not indent the first paragraph after a heading; all other paragraphs are indented. Use the software's manual tab set for .75 cm or .3 in. Do not indent by using the space bar, and do not program the formatting to create indentations automatically.

Do not adjust the visual presentation of your document by using any additional formatting options within your software program beyond its standard (basic) functions. All formatting for visual appeal will be done during the layout phase.

Language style

Please be sure the manuscript is written in good quality English and organized in a coherent, easy to follow style. Papers lacking adequate language or organizational quality may be returned to the author for improvement in the appropriate areas or rejected.

Key terms used in the document should be italicized on first use only. Because this is an interdisciplinary journal, terms not easily identifiable by persons from diverse fields of study should be defined on first use, even if they are common knowledge in the author's field.

Use abbreviations only if it will help clarify comprehension within the article. Abbreviations in a figure must be explained either in a caption or in the legend. For tables, the abbreviation must be explained either in the table title (if the title includes words that are abbreviated within the body of the table) or in the table notes. The abbreviation must be explained in every table or figure in which it is used. However, in the body of the text, once an abbreviation is introduced, only the abbreviation should be used in subsequent text (never the full words). All tables and figures should be able to "stand alone," meaning that a reader can understand what is being communicated without having to read the paper.

Do not hyphenate words unless it is part of its normal spelling (e.g., self-esteem); consult the APA manual for a list of nonhypenated prefixes. Turn off the automatic hyphenation option on your word processor. Do not hyphenate words at the end of the screen line: Any hyphenation needed to even line lengths during final layout of the manuscript will be managed as part of the editorial process. Because the hyphenation of words is determined by how the word is used within the context of the sentence, Human Technology's copyeditors will rely on Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary for guidance.

Human Technology does not use footnotes, but rather endnotes. Please add endnote numbering within the body by way of superscript Arabic numerals in the font options under the Home tab. In the endnotes section that follows the complete manuscript text, the corresponding number and text should be noted with normal size numbers followed by a period and the material. Use endnotes sparingly. However, all texts that require reprint permission should be acknowledged either with the figure or with an endnote indicating such permission from the copyright owner(s), with copies of such permission submitted to the managing editor of Human Technology. See the APA Manual for more information on securing copyright reprint permission.

Scientific style

Human Technology uses the metric system for physical measurements, based on the International System of Units (SI). For experiments not conducted in metric units, author(s) may provide the nonmetric units, with the SI equivalent following in parentheses.

Please verify that any statistical information included is correct and accurately and clearly presented. Use standard abbreviations (see the APA Manual) when presenting data.

In-text reference style

All direct and indirect quotes of others' work must be properly cited, including page number. Direct quotes over 40 words should be presented in block form rather than within quotation marks inside the body of the text. Quotations from individuals that are drawn from one's data should be italicized and comply with either the in-text or block quotation styles.

For in-text citations, follow the APA Manual: author(s)' last name, followed by the source's year of publication and, if citing a direct or indirect quote, the page number(s). Significantly paraphrased material does not require a page number. When multiple citations are presented simultaneously, citations are listed in alphabetical order, based on the last name of the first author. Three examples are provided here; please consult the APA Manual for details on other types of citations.

  • If the author(s) is(are) mentioned in the body of the text, the citation would be
    According to Axel, Smith, Parker, and Bradenton (1997)... [used for first citation in text; used as Axel et al. (1997) in subsequent mentions]
  • If the author(s) is not mentioned by name in the body of the text, the citation would be
    ... as previous studies have shown (Axel, Smith, Parker, & Bradenton, 1997; Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977).... [used for first citation in text; used as (Axel et al., 1997, Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977) on subsequent mentions]
  • If you are directly quoting from a source, you need to provide the page number where the quote can be found. It might look like this:
    According to Axel, Smith, Parker, and Bradenton (1997, p. 332), "The data indicates ...," and this has been suggested as well by other researchers (see Collingswood, in press; Paleceed & Barselle, 1977, chap. 5).

Please notice that where and is used to indicate the last in a list of multiple authors of a source in the body of the text, an ampersand (&) is used within parenthetical citations. Notice also that a comma (,) separates the multiple authors of a source; a semicolon (;) separates multiple sources.

For sources that have three to five authors, list all authors on first reference, and the first author and et al. on subsequent citations (e.g., Carlyle, Kahlil, Tennenbaum, Bristol, & Schank, 2004, on first reference; Carlyle et al., 2004, for subsequent citations). Sources with two authors are presented with both names on every use; sources with six or more authors are presented using first author name and et al. on every use.

For citations drawn from the Internet, treat the source in the typical citation form within the body of the text (name of author or Web source's organization, publication date, and, if needed, page/paragraph number). The URL is to be provided in the reference listing. See the paragraph that addresses Internet references in Section 4 below for further information.

4. Reference List

Unlike the APA Manual, Human Technology requires the references at the end of the article to be single-spaced. In addition, Human Technology requests that all authors of a source be listed, even if there is a multitude of authors. Finally, if the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and/or the Uniform Resource Name (URN) of any cited literature is available, please include it with the reference material.

Please verify that the reference list includes only citations from within the body of the text and all citations within the text are also found in the reference list. Be sure all names and words are spelled correctly, and the dates of publication are correct. A few examples for references are provided here; more detailed examples, including for citations of electronic, audio and visual materials, can be found in the APA Manual. Please follow those guidelines carefully.

Sources presented in the reference list should be listed in alphabetical order of the surname of the first author; multiple titles by the same author(s) should be presented in chronological order.

  • If the source is a journal article by one or two authors, the reference formatting would be
    Beilharz, R. G., & Cox, D. F. (1967). Social dominance in swine. Animal Behavior, 15(2), 117-122.

    Please note that if a journal has sequential pagination for a volume (the page numbers in each issue follow those of previous issues in the particular volume), an issue number (in parentheses, following the italicized volume number) is acceptable. However, if each issue in a volume begins with Page 1, then the issue number is required.

  • If the source is an article or chapter that is in contained within an edited book, the reference formatting would be
    Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Green & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp. 73-109). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • If the source is a manuscript that has been accepted for publication but not yet printed, the reference formatting would be
    Jasinskaja, L., Leibkind, K., Horenczyk, G., & Schmitz, P. (in press). The interactive nature of acculturation: Perceived discrimination, acculturation attitudes and stress among young ethnic repatriates in Finland, Israel and Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.
  • Proceedings drawn from conferences, seminars, workshops, and the like, can be presented in one of three ways. If the material is drawn from printed proceedings, then treat the reference as a chapter from an edited book:
    Andersen, P. B. (1999). Elastic interfaces: Maritime instrumentation as an example. In J. M. Hoc, P. Millot, E. Hollnagel, & P. C. Cacciabue (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control (CSAPC'99; pp. 35-41). Valenciennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Valenciennes.

    Note that some published proceedings do not include editors. In those situations, simply use the formatting In Proceedings of ...

    If the source is not published, then one of these two options may be most appropriate:

    Clancy, C. (2005, October). Health information technology, quality of care and evidence-based medicine: An interlinked triad. Presentation given at the Annual Symposium, American Medical Informatics Association, Washington, DC, USA. Retrieved March 27, 2006, from
    Mäkeläinen, B., Nurminen, M., Reijonen, P., & Torvinen, V. (1996, August). Everyday use between success and failure: Making sense with onion layers. Paper presented at the 19th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS), Lokeberg, Sweden.

Please note that, in most cases, only the first letter of the first word of a title (and the first word after the colon in a compound title) and words that are proper nouns are capitalized. Titles of journals and books, and the volume numbers of journals, are italicized.

For references drawn from the Internet, please provide the complete URL for the actual Web page to which you are referring. Do not place a period after the URL. Provide a retrieval date for the citation, and check prior to publication that the URL is still active. No longer active URLs cannot be included in the published paper. For direct quotes, provide the paragraph number (or section heading and then paragraph number, for long online sources). Regarding a Web page's publication date, use either the copyright date or the last updated date. If neither of these exists, provide the notation n.d. (no date) as your publication year.

Prepare the reference list with all references flush left; do not use the spacebar or tab to create the indentations or add spaces between the references. The correct formatting of these will be handled during the layout process. Please verify the correct spelling of each element of the reference listing and that the dates of publication and page spread (if needed) are correct. All locations for publishers must include the city (and, if required, state/province), followed by the country. Abbreviate only the USA and the UK. Be sure the publisher's name is complete.

5. Author's Note

Any author's note (if needed) should be as brief as possible. It is within this note that the author mentions any grant support (with the names of the funding organizations provided in full and grant number), notes previous uses of the material contained in the manuscript, acknowledges individuals who provided significant assistance in the preparation of the manuscript, and addresses any perceived conflict of interest. Human Technology's style is not to acknowledge the contribution of the anonymous reviewers; these individuals are thanked publicly in a biennial acknowledgement in our journal.

All manuscripts should include the name and addresses (postal address and email) for the contact author. Please use the phrasing--All correspondence should be addressed to--followed by the corresponding author's full name, affiliation, and addresses.

6. Appendixes

Include appendixes only if they provide essential information not possible within the body of the article. Please consult the APA Manuals for titling of appendixes.

7. Figures, Illustrations and Tables

Manuscripts should use visual elements only to clarify or expound the text. All figures and tables must be able to "stand alone," which means a reader can understand fully what is being communicated by the table or figure without having to read the article. Sufficient titling, captioning and legends make this goal possible.

Figures, illustrations, and tables should be created using the Arial font (8-12 points). Any exceptions to the point size will be decided only by the journal staff. Do not provide lines around figures and tables unless negotiated with Human Technology's staff. Visual elements must fit within the designated margins of the page: the maximum width is 16 cm (6.25 in.) and the maximum length is 22.2 cm (8.75 in). Color is permitted in creating charts, graphs, and figures, but the clarity of the figure must also be apparent when the figure is printed in black & white (including variations in the color values to provide discernable versions of gray). Tables should be created in such a way as internal lines are not needed.

All illustrations (line art, photographs, graphs, or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text (numbered consecutively as they are mentioned; one series of numbers is to be used for the figures/illustrations and a separate series for the tables). In most situations, do not introduce graphic elements until they are needed because the graphic will be embedded as close as possible to the text including the item's number. Figure parts (several small figures or images that compose an interrelated image) should be identified with lower-case Roman letters and positioned in relation to each other. All components of illustrations, tables, and figure parts that form a specific visual element should be electronically grouped together (meaning that the full visual element should be able to be moved as a unique and complete entity). Legends, if necessary, must be positioned within the body of the graph.

Any scanned images (line art, or b/w or color photographs) should be created with high enough resolution (300 dpi is the minimum recommended) to see the necessary detail in a PDF version of the document on the computer screen and in print. Scanned images must be saved in either JPEG or TIFF formats.

Vector graphics created in a separate graphics program should be exported into an EPS file and then imported into the Word or RTF document. The EPS files must always contain a preview of the figure in TIFF format.

Tables should be presented with a table title (table number followed by a period and then the title with major words capitalized) centered above the table. If needed, a table caption should positioned beneath the table (flush left), beginning with the word Note. All forms of figures should provide a caption (figure number, followed a period, and the caption, with only the first word of each sentence capitalized) centered below the figure.

If a figure includes photographic images in which people are visually identifiable, it is the responsibility of the authors to obtain the permission of these persons for their images to be published in Human Technology. Please submit a copy of those photo agreements with the Author's Warranty paperwork or upon request of the journal management staff.

Additional resources

Final Submission Checklist

Please be sure the submission of the final manuscript meets the standards provided in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (referred to here as APA Manual; 6th ed. is preferred, but 5th ed. is acceptable), with the exceptions specifically for Human Technology noted in the Final Manuscript Preparation Details.

  • Is the manuscript organized with the required elements in the following order:
    • manuscript's title
    • manuscript's running title (50 characters maximum, including punctuation and spaces)
    • the names and affiliations of all authors
    • a 120-150 word abstract
    • 4-6 keywords/phrases
    • the body of the text
    • endnotes (if needed)
    • reference list
    • author's note (if needed) and correspondence information
    • and tables (with titles) and figures (with captions) in sequential order
    • appendixes (if needed).
  • Is the manuscript text provided in single-spaced, one-column format?
  • Are the margins as specified? (For A4, in cm, 3.8 at the top; 3.7 at the bottom; and 2.54 on each side. For USA letter, in inches,1.5 at the top; .75 at the bottom; and 1 on each side)?
  • Is the font used for manuscript text portions 12-point Times New Roman and the text fully justified?
  • Are all pages numbered (centered in the footer)?
  • Are tabs (.75 cm or .3 in) created through the software program and not through the space bar?
  • Is the hyphenation option turned off in the software program?
  • Is the quality of English sufficient for publication in an international journal?
  • If the text contains endnotes, are they noted appropriately within the article and specified at the end of the text?
  • Are all direct and indirect quotes cited properly (author, publication year, and page number) and paraphrased quotes noted with author and publication year, and included in the reference list?
  • Are the reference citations in the text created to meet the standards provided by the APA Manual and correspond exactly with their counterparts in the Reference List?
  • Are the headings used created according to the Human Technology style, in 12-point Arial, created without use of the software's formatting option and reflect the organization of the article?
  • Are abbreviations used only when necessary and properly defined on first use?
  • Are statistics and symbols used according to APA Manual standards?
  • Are all measurements, other than time, provided in metric standards or provided with metric equivalents if nonmetric units were used in the experiment?
  • Are locations for tables and illustrations noted clearly within the text?
  • Are all statistical texts and abbreviations presented clearly, accurately, and in correct form?
  • Is the reference list prepared according to the Human Technology format (modified APA Manual style: alphabetical order by surname, italics for publications, page numbers when needed, etc.)? Are URLs for any Internet references still active?
  • Do all references in the reference list have a mention in an in-text citation within the body of the text?
  • Are issue numbers included for journals in which each issue of a volume starts with page 1?
  • Is an author's note needed? If so, does it follow the stated guidelines?
  • Have you included correspondence information (contact name, affiliation, postal address, and email address) for the author of contact?
  • Are all tables and illustrations created using Arial font, 8-12 points, and the details of images and text sharp enough to see/read both in print form and on the screen?
  • Are all illustrations and tables numbered consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text and properly titled/captioned?
  • Are any abbreviations used in the table/figure fully explained in the legend, title, or note?
  • If needed, has written permission to reprint copyrighted materials (texts, tests, tables, or illustrations), in whole or in part, been secured by the author and submitted to Human Technology?
  • If needed, has written permission been secured for individuals within photographs in which they are visually identifiable?